Below I have 2 posts please provide a response for both. 150 words each with ref

Below I have 2 posts please provide a response for both. 150 words each with reference.Part 1Your response to your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.LymphaticLymphedemaOne can define lymphedema as the buildup of lymph fluid in the fatty tissues under your skin. It most commonly occurs in the limbs, although it can also occur in the face, neck, trunk, abdomen (belly), or genitals. Early and conservative management is required to help minimize symptoms.ElephantiasisElephantiasis is a disease that causes a significant growth of a part of the body, usually the limbs. External genitals are another region that elephantiasis frequently impacts. Elephantiasis is often caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system, resulting in an accumulation of a fluid known as lymph in the afflicted regions.Differential Diagnosis of mumps versus cervical adenitisMumps is an infection that causes swelling of the parotid or salivary gland lasting two days and caused by no other apparent reason (Cheung, Henderson, Banfield, & Carswell, 2017). Cervical adenitis is an inflammatory condition that affects a lymph node in the neck. An infection can cause it in the mouth, throat, sinuses, or other head, face, or neck regions.Thorax and LungsDyspneaThe most noticeable sign of dyspnea is difficult breathing. It may last a minute or two following vigorous exertion. Asthma, anxiety, or a heart attack can all induce a sudden onset of dyspnea.OrthopneaShortness of breath or trouble breathing when lying down is referred to as orthopnea. Various factors, such as acute pneumonia and obesity, cause orthopnea.ApneaSleep apnea is a sleeping abnormality that can harm people and often stop breathing and restart. Some diseases that may raise the risk of obstructive sleep apnea include high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, congestive heart insufficiency, and Parkinson’s disease.Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspneaParoxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is a nighttime incident of acute shortness of breath and coughing. Chronic pulmonary obstructive illness with sleep apnea and asthma, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is a common symptom of numerous cardiac diseases, including heart failure with maintained ejection fraction (Donovan, et al., 2017).TachypneaTachypnea is when one is breathing at a rate that is faster than average. Tachypnea may indicate sepsis or acidosis, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or metabolic acidosis.BradypneaBradypnea characterizes a condition where a person takes fewer breaths per minute than is typical for their age and activity level. Bradypnea is a symptom, not a disease in and of itself. It might result from an underlying physical ailment or health condition, or it could result from over-medication.HyperpneaThe term “hyperpnea” refers to breathing in more air than usual. It is your body’s response to a lack of oxygen, especially during exercise; hyperventilation is one of the conditions associated with hyperpnea.Kussmaul breathingKussmaul breathing is a laborious, deep breathing pattern that signals that the body or organs have become too acidic. A patient came in with deep breathing at a shift when I was working, and the doctor diagnosed this with links to diseases that cause metabolic abnormalities, such as renal failure and diabetes.Cheyne-StokesCheyne-Stokes respiration is an abnormal breathing rhythm, consisting of cycles of increasingly deeper breathing followed by intervals of gradually shallower breathing. The physiological processes that result in this type of breathing, including the circulatory, pulmonary, and sympathetic nervous systems, are not entirely understood.Cardiovascular SystemAuscultation is the medical word to hear noises within your body with a stethoscope. There are no dangers or adverse effects from performing this easy test. Your doctor listens to each part of your body using a piece of equipment known as a Doppler ultrasonography. Doctors use auscultation to examine the lungs, abdomen, heart, and central blood vessels (Arts, Lim, Ven, Heunks, & Tuinman, 2020).The doctor listens to the four primary areas of the heart where heart valve sounds are the loudest. These are the regions of the chest that are above and somewhat below the left breast. Some heart sounds are also best heard with your head tilted to the left. To hear the bowel noises, the doctor listens to one or more regions of the abdomen individually. The doctor may hear swishing, gurgling, or nothing at all. Each sound alerts the doctor to what is going on in the intestines. The airflow sound changes when airways are obstructed, constricted, or filled with fluid. They’ll also listen for unusual noises like wheezing. Find out more about breath sounds. Palpation and percussion are two more ways the doctor might detect what is inside the body. Palpation may be performed simply by putting the doctor’s fingertips over one of the arteries to assess systolic pressure. Doctors often seek a point of maximum impact (PMI) near the heart. Healthcare professionals perform percussion by tapping the doctor’s fingers on various areas of the abdomen. Doctors use percussion to listen for noises based on the organs or bodily components under the skin.Venous insufficiency is not hazardous, although it can produce symptoms in women. When combined with high blood pressure or proteinuria, leg oedema can be a symptom of pre-eclampsia. Ankle edema appears to be reduced by external pneumatic compression. In late pregnancy, such as in this case, rutosides may alleviate symptoms of venous insufficiency.ReferencesArts, L., Lim, E. H., Ven, M. P., Heunks, L., & Tuinman, P. R. (2020, April 30). The diagnostic accuracy of lung auscultation in adult patients with acute pulmonary pathologies: a meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 7347. Retrieved September 06, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC71928…Cheung, L., Henderson, A. H., Banfield, G., & Carswell, A. (2017, June 05). Bilateral isolated submandibular gland mumps. BMJ Case Reports, 20(17), 201-219. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC55349…Donovan, L. M., Rise, P. J., Carson, S. S., Feemster, L. C., Griffith, M. F., Kapur, V. K., . . . Lindenauer, P. K. (2017, December). Sleep Disturbance in Smokers with Preserved Pulmonary Function and with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Annals of The American Thoracic Society, 14(12), 1836–1843. Retrieved September 06, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC57112…Below I have 2 posts please provide a response for both. 150 words each with reference.Part 2Your response to your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.Lymphatic Lymphedema is the swelling which occurs in one of an individual’s arms or legs or sometimes in both legs or arms due to damage to or removal of lymph nodes as part of treatment for cancer resulting in blockage in the lymphatic system (Grada & Phillips, 2017).Elephantiasis is a condition wherein the limb or the other body part becomes grossly enlarged owing to lymphatic vessels obstruction by filarial parasites (Kwa, 2017).Differential Diagnosis of Mumps and Cervical AdenitisMumps has similar symptoms to other conditions that must be considered during its diagnosis. The signs, as well as symptoms of mumps, are fever, swollen and painful salivary glands, painful lymphadenopathy, fatigue, difficulty swallowing, appetite loss, and headache. The differential diagnosis of mumps includes brucellosis, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, malaria, and lymphoma (Grennan, 2019). Brucellosis is associated with fever, abdominal pain, rash, weight loss, arthritis, hepatosplenomegaly, and painful lymphadenopathy. The symptoms and signs of tuberculosis include rash, fever, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of weight, painful lymphadenopathy, and arthritis (Schober, 2016). Typhoid fever is associated with abdominal pain, rash, fever, arthritis, and hepatosplenomegaly. The signs, as well as symptoms of malaria, are fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, arthritis, as well as hepatosplenomegaly. Lymphoma is associated with fever, abdominal pain, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and constant fatigue(Schober, 2016). Cervical adenitis also has similar symptoms and signs to other conditions which have to be considered during its diagnosis. On the other hand, the differential diagnosis of cervical adenitis is tuberculosis cervical lymphadenitis, and malignant lymphadenopathy (Schober, 2016). Cervical adenitis is the inflammation of the lymph nodes within the neck. The condition is associated with swelling in the neck, fever, loss of appetite, painful cervical mass, tender and painful neck, pain when moving the neck, sore or red skin within the area of the lymph node affected, and pain when swallowing (Schober, 2016). The signs, as well as symptoms of tuberculosis cervical lymphadenitis, are conglomerate matted mass, suppuration, painful cervical mass, abscess, hard or fluctuant nodes, and spontaneous discharge. Malignant lymphadenopathy is associated with painless and hard mass that is immobile, loss of appetite, fever, a lump under the skin, night sweats, skin rash, weight loss, feeling tired and itching skin (Schober, 2016). Thorax and Lungs Dyspnea is the tight feeling in the chest causing difficulty in taking a deep breath (Jarvis, 2018). Dyspnea may be present in asthma or lung disease. In my nursing career, dyspnea has been one of the symptoms in patients with asthma or heart failure (Jarvis, 2018). Orthopnea is difficulty breathing or shortness of breath when a person is lying down. This symptom might be present in pulmonary edema or heart failure (Jarvis, 2018). In my nursing career, orthopnea has been associated with pulmonary edema among patients. Apnea is breathing cessation during sleep due to narrowing of the upper airway (Jarvis, 2018). Apnea may be present in obstructive sleep apnea or congestive heart failure. In my nursing practice, apnea is has been a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnea in patients (Jarvis, 2018). Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea refers to shortness of breath sensation awakening a patient frequently after one or two hours of a sleep. This symptom is common among patients having asthma or heart failure (Jarvis, 2018). In my nursing career, the symptom is usually found in patients having heart failure. Tachypnea is rapid and shallow breathing. This symptom may be present in asthma patients (Jarvis, 2018). In my nursing career, tachypnea has been the most common symptom among patients having asthma. Bradypnea is the abnormal slow breathing rate and it is a symptom of asthma or opioid overdose (Jarvis, 2018). In my nursing career, bradypnea has been the most common symptom of opioid overdose among patients. Hyperpnea is more deep breathing and sometimes breathing faster than usual. Hyperpnea may be present in asthma (Jarvis, 2018). In my nursing career, hyperpnea is mostly common in patients having asthma. Kussmaul breathing is deep and rapid breathing. This symptom might be present in metabolic acidosis (Jarvis, 2018). In my nursing career, the symptom has been most common in patients having metabolic acidosis. Periodic breathing (Cheyne-Stokes) is breathing abnormally and consisting of cycles of breathing that become increasingly deeper and then followed by the periods in which there is gradual shallower respiration (Jarvis, 2018). This is a symptom of heart failure, brain tumors, or stroke. In my nursing career, the symptom occurs most frequently in patients having heart failure (Jarvis, 2018). Cardiovascular System The designated auscultatory areas include the aortic valve area, pulmonic valve area and second pulmonic area and tricuspid area as well as mitral area. An aortic valve area’s location is in second right intercostal space in the right sternal border, and it is heard there due to physiologic defect or flow of blood through valve orifice (Voin et al., 2017). The pulmonic valve area’s location is in second left intercostal space within left sternal border and occurs because of delayed valve closing. The second pulmonic region is found in a third left intercostal space in a person’s left sternal border and it is heard there owing to closure or opening of heart valves (Voin et al., 2017). The location of tricuspid area is in an individual’s fourth left intercostal space that is along the person’s lower left sternal border and it is heard there due to blood flow into the ventricular chambers. The mitral area’s location is at the apex of the heart within a person’s fifth left intercostal space in the midclavicular line and it occurs due to failure of chordae or papillary muscles to uphold tension during late systole (Voin et al., 2017). The pregnant woman of 32 weeks gestation and having difficulty with dependent edema as well as painful varicosities can be helped through evidence-based interventions. Dependent edema problems can be relieved by reducing sodium intake and caffeine, and increasing potassium intake (Schober, 2016). This is because salt can make her body hold on to extra water, and caffeine is a diuretic that may cause her to pee more and then makes her body thinks it should hold on to fluid. Potassium can help her body balance the quantity of fluids the body holds onto. Painful varicosities can be relieved by getting regular exercise that can improve blood flow in her legs and elevating her legs periodically, which can improve her circulation (Schober, 2016). ReferencesGrada, A. A., & Phillips, T. J. (2017). Lymphedema: diagnostic workup and management. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 77(6), 995-1006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.03.021 (Links to an external site.)Grennan, D. (2019). Mumps. Jama, 322(10), 1022-1022. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.10982Jarvis, C. (2018). Physical Examination and Health Assessment-Canadian E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.Kwa, B. H. (2017). Filariasis and Elephantiasis: You Can’t Go Home Again. In The Parasite Chronicles (pp. 61-74). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74923-5_6Schober, M. (2016). Introduction to advanced nursing practice. New York: springer. Voin, V., Oskouian, R. J., Loukas, M., & Tubbs, R. S. (2017). Auscultation of the heart: the basics with anatomical correlation. Clinical Anatomy, 30(1), 58-60. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.22780
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